Southeast and Eastern Coastal Area
The local climate of the coastal zone of Bangladesh, and notably the Meghna estuary, is largely dependent on factors like fresh water flows from rivers, tide penetration from the Bay of Bengal and meteorological conditions like cyclones, storm surges and wind. Sea level rise appears to be one of the most important causes of environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities in the coastal areas due to salinity intrusion and coastal flooding (Seal A. and Baten M. A. 2012). Even though salinity intrusion in groundwater and the soil is a slow process, the associated impacts are already devastating. Saline water intrusion in coastal rivers and groundwater aquifers, is reducing freshwater availability for human consumption and agricultural irrigation. Salinity intrusion in the soil highly impacts crop yield, and under-nutrition, because of the lack of vegetable cultivation, appears to be an increasingly common health problem in all coastal areas. Stakeholders from the region also report that climate change impacts on the fisheries sector is huge. Both captured fish (Sundarbans) and farmed fish (shrimp) have been impacted in terms of their variety and availability, which has reduced over time due to the changing climate (salinity intrusion, sea and river surface temperatures, etc.)
Coastal areas of Bangladesh are also highly exposed to cyclones and storm surges, which have significant impacts on lives and livelihoods in the region. During the period 1960-2015, nineteen severe cyclones have hit the coast of Bangladesh (Baseline study Climate Change). Expected increase in the intensity of cyclones, storm surges and coastal flooding may affect lives, livelihoods, agricultural and livestock sectors, as well as infrastructure and transports facilities.